Main menu


How cars communicate? what is V2X?

How cars communicate? what is V2X?

Autonomous driving, big data, artificial intelligence, cloud, 5G. The ensemble of these cutting-edge technologies is the automobile of the future. LG Electronics VS (Vehicle components Solutions) business division is running today for a new customer experience that can be enjoyed in automobiles. Meet the future automobile world, , experienced by senior researcher Jeong Soon-in, a member of it.

With the development of wireless communication technology, people today can communicate in real time. In addition, communication and artificial intelligence technologies are combined to connect home appliances and people. What if cars were connected to people? Forward collision detection and blind spot warning in cars are typical examples. At the core of the car-human connection are V2X (Vehicle to Everything) and TCU (Telemetric Control Unit).

Let's take a closer look at how these two make the in-car experience so convenient.

The core technology of self-driving cars, V2X

V2X refers to a communication technology in which vehicles exchange information with various objects using wired and wireless networks. It is a concept that includes all forms of communication technology that can be applied to vehicles on the road. It is considered a key technology for self-driving cars, such as reflecting real-time traffic conditions or recognizing objects or people in front to significantly improve stability.

Self-driving cars are attracting many people's attention for their innovative technology and convenience. At the same time, there are voices of concern about safety. Global market research firm IHS Markit predicts that the demand for self-driving cars will reach 33.7 million units in 2040 [ source ]. V2X is considered a key technology to realize automated transportation infrastructure in the growing autonomous vehicle market. Let's take a closer look at what technologies are in V2X.

V2X, what is it connected to?

V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle)

V2V refers to wireless communication between vehicles in a state in which vehicles are connected through a network. To put it simply, we can say that cars talk to each other while driving. V2V is a system that mainly prevents collisions or sudden traffic accidents. It supports forward collision warning, electronic emergency brake detection, and no-overtaking warning by sharing speed information between vehicles and detecting hazards in the direction of travel.

V2I (Vehicle to Infrastructure)

can be connected not only to vehicles but also to infrastructure. V2I is mainly used to manage the flow of vehicles by identifying the overall road environment and controlling the signal system. Typically, it is possible with this V2I that we can search for 'fast route' in navigation. It helps to prevent traffic congestion and accidents in real time, such as school zone warnings and speed limit warnings, which are included in normal navigation, as well as warnings of large vehicles and construction sections.

V2N (Vehicle to Nomadic)

V2N exchanges information between a vehicle and an individual (a pedestrian or a rider on a two-wheeled vehicle) with a mobile device. When a vehicle gets close to a pedestrian, it notifies both parties and blocks the approach, enabling accident prevention. You can also monitor vehicle conditions with your mobile device. Furthermore, various services can be provided, such as guiding vacancies in parking lots or guiding electric vehicle drivers to electric charging stations.

5G and Wi-Fi, V2X at the crossroads of choice

V2X uses the network in two main ways. The first is Wave, which is a kind of Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) based on Wi-Fi, and a cellular system based on mobile communication, commonly referred to as LTE or 5G.

An example of the DSRC-type wave is the high-pass communication module, which is an automatic toll collection system. This is the principle of communication between a roadside base station on the roadside and a vehicle terminal. There is a cost burden due to the constraint that the base station and the vehicle must be in close proximity and the need to install roadside base stations all over the road. However, Wave has already proven its stability through long development and investment, and has the advantage that it can be introduced immediately because technology standardization has been completed.

There are also ways to connect based on cellular, such as 5G communication. V2X operating through a mobile communication network is sometimes referred to as C-V2X. Unlike Wave, it has the advantage of being implemented using base stations of existing mobile carriers. It features high data transfer rates, high reliability and large-scale connection support, and low latency. Recognizing and reacting quickly to road events is a critical part of autonomous driving, and low latency is essential. However, since it is a next-generation technology compared to Wave, it is a method that needs to be considered for stability and commercialization.

Base of vehicle communication, TCU

Telematics, which means the combination of automobile and computer/mobile communication technology, is based on TCU (Telematic Control Unit), a communication equipment for vehicles. In order for V2X, which manages communication outside the vehicle, to operate, a TCU is required. The TCU can be seen as playing the same role as the brain of a car. It tracks the location of the vehicle through functions such as Wi-Fi or GPS, or exchanges information with sensors of nearby vehicles to provide a safe driving environment.

The TCU is also at the heart of infotainment technology. Enjoying high-definition movies in the car and enjoying next-generation technologies such as virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) are all possible thanks to TCU. As technology advances, the in-vehicle experience is getting newer. The TCU-based infotainment system presents joy to the occupants, such as video conferencing in the car or video recording.

Growing telematics industry, the protagonist

As such, automobiles are playing a role that is more than a means of transportation. The telematics industry, which is attracting attention as a future mobility communication, is an area where not only automobiles but also audio equipment and home appliance companies invest. LG Electronics took first place in the global telematics market in 2021, ahead of German Continental. Counterpoint Research, a market research firm, announced that as a result of the 2017-2021 survey, LG Electronics exceeded 30% of the market share in the TCU market last year for the first time, widening the gap with the second place. [Source] LG Electronics, which has been recognized for its excellent technology in the TCU field, is currently installing its products in several global premium finished vehicles.

Based on TCU, V2X is an essential element of future mobility and is positioned as a companion to move forward with humans. LG Electronics is making great efforts with the LG Electronics Telematics Development Team so that more customers can experience next-generation mobility through new telematics technology. Please look forward to LG Electronics' telematics and various electronic parts solutions that will be installed in more global premium cars in the future.