Main menu


Cybersecurity Concepts, Types, and Jobs

Cybersecurity Concepts, Types, and Jobs

Cybersecurity Concepts, Types, and Jobs

Cybersecurity is the overall activity of protecting computers, networks, and data from malicious electronic attacks. It is an activity that compares to physical security, a more traditional security activity that controls access to buildings or other objects in the real world.

While many high-tech physical security vendors have a combination of physical and cybersecurity in their org charts, cybersecurity is an activity that focuses on protecting assets from malicious logins and code, not on property intrusion or theft. to be.

Types of cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is a broad concept that encompasses several specific fields of activity. There are many classification methods. For example, there is Kaspersky Lab's classification system, and Mindcore has such a system. However, they are most often classified as follows:

- Network security is the activity to prevent or prevent unauthorized intrusion into the corporate network.

- Application security is a security activity that makes the application safer by finding and fixing vulnerabilities in application code.

Information security, also called data security, is the activity of keeping data safe from unauthorized access or manipulation, either at rest or in transfer between machines.

Operational security, often abbreviated as OPSEC, refers to the ability of clever malicious actors to evaluate and protect public data that, when properly analyzed or combined with other data, could expose the 'big picture' to be hidden. It is a process.

- Disaster recovery also has elements that can be classified as cybersecurity activities. This includes, for example, techniques to correct and recover from widespread data loss or service outages caused by cyberattacks.

These cybersecurity activities deal with cybersecurity threats that also have specific concepts. Cybersecurity threats have a long history. It dates back to the phone network hacks of the 1970s. And modern threats are:

- Malware

- Denial of service attacks

- Phishing

- Ransomware

- SQL injection

- Cross-site scripting (XSS)

- Man-in-the- middle attack (Man in the Middle Attacks, MitM)

- Credential stuffing

Each category of cybersecurity activity prepares for an attack before it occurs, and addresses these threats and It is aimed at responding to new attacks that may emerge in the future.

cybersecurity framework

One way to lay the groundwork for cybersecurity is to introduce a cybersecurity framework. It is not a software tool or hardware appliance. Policies and procedures that will strengthen an organization's cybersecurity strategy. It is this framework that various companies and institutions, including government agencies, create and present as guidelines for strengthening the organization's cybersecurity.

Any cybersecurity framework provides detailed directions on how to implement and implement a five-step cybersecurity process.

- Identifying: Identifying vulnerable assets within the organization

- Protecting: Protecting assets and data, and essential maintenance activities

- Detecting: Detecting a breach or intrusion

- Response: Responding to a breach

- Recovering ): to recover the damage caused to a company's systems, data, financial condition, and reputation as a result of an attack. A

cybersecurity framework can also be a mechanism by which governments regulate security. For example, both HIPAA and GDPR contain detailed cybersecurity frameworks that set out specific procedures that businesses must apply under the law.

Of course, most cybersecurity frameworks, including those developed by governments, are not 'forced' frameworks. The most widely used of these frameworks is version 1.1 of the Cybersecurity Framework, issued by NIST in April 2018. It is a framework that is mandatory for US federal government agencies to use. However, the cases of voluntary introduction and use by financial companies, energy companies, defense companies, and telecommunication companies are increasing.

Cyber ​​Security Occupation

If you're reading this article, it means you're interested in (or maybe someone already working in) the field of cybersecurity. The job titles you'll see most often when browsing job sites are security analyst, security engineer, and security architect. The title is pretty vague. However, in general, in terms of responsibility or experience, analysts are followed by engineers and architects. 

Specifically, analysts identify and fix problems in existing systems, engineers deploy or majorly update new systems, and architects design new systems. However, actual responsibilities may vary from company to company. Therefore, it is important to examine each job in detail. The highest title is Chief Information Security Officer (CISO). However, it is not a title that has been firmly established and used.

- Security Analyst (Analyst)

This title is also called Cybersecurity Analyst, Data Security Analyst, Information Systems Security Analyst, and IT Security Analyst. 

• Plan, implement and upgrade security assessments and controls.

• Maintain data and monitor for secure access.

• Conduct internal and external security audits.

• Manage networks and intrusion detection and prevention systems.

• Analyze security breaches to determine the cause.

• Define, enforce and maintain corporate security policies.

• Coordinate and collaborate on security plans with external vendors.

- Security Engineer

Security engineers are on the front line of protecting corporate assets from threats. This job requires significant technical, organizational and communication skills. IT security engineer is a new job title. It focuses on 'quality management' of IT infrastructure. Design, build and defend scalable, secure and robust systems, address operational data center systems and networks, help organizations better understand advanced cyber threats, and help formulate network protection strategies .

- Security Architect (Architect)

An architect covering both the business world and the technical world is a solid information security architect. Although the details of the role may vary from industry to industry, it is usually a managerial position. They are responsible for planning, analyzing, designing, configuring, testing, implementing, maintaining, and supporting an organization's computer and network security infrastructure. The ability to comprehensively recognize the technology and information required for business and business is required.


CISO is a C-level executive who oversees the operation of the organization's IT security department and related personnel. The CISO directs and manages the strategy, operations, and budget for protecting an organization's information assets.

Security leaders are being formed into C-level executives or board members as data protection becomes very important. CSO or CISO is a title that currently leading companies and institutions should organize as core management positions.

You may find more specialized job titles in job postings. Valparaiso University in the US lists some of these titles. These are titles associated with the specific types of cybersecurity activities mentioned above. 

The days when security analysts were “generalists” are quickly ending. This is an era when intrusion testers focus on phishing attacks on users to validate application security, network security, or level of security awareness. Incident response teams may be operational 24 hours a day, every day. 

There are many jobs in the cybersecurity field. There is also a huge demand for people with the skills to match these jobs. Most of the workers in this field agree that there is a problem of lack of 'skill (talent)'. According to a recent survey, three-quarters of the respondents said that the lack of job seekers with the relevant skills had an impact on their organization.

Cybersecurity Courses and Cybersecurity Degrees 

How do I acquire these skills? Historically, there have been many IT and cybersecurity experts who have acquired skills through practical experience. This is because it took a considerable amount of time for the cybersecurity field to grow into an independent field. Many departments have trained some of those interested in security to become security experts.

However, cybersecurity is now developing into a more specialized field than in the past. As a result, university education courses that prepare future talents in the cybersecurity field as well as majors have emerged. Furthermore, graduate education dealing with cybersecurity has emerged. It is the process of focusing on a specific area. For example, a master's degree in cybersecurity and public policy can be obtained from Tufts University. 

Career Paths in Cybersecurity

So how do you get a job in cybersecurity? 

Getting a degree in cybersecurity is just the beginning of your career. Also, you don't have to have a degree. There are a number of pathways that can lead to a career in cybersecurity. Teenage hackers, naval intelligence officers with experience in cyberwarfare, and political advisers focused on privacy issues all have had successful careers in cybersecurity.

For a visual overview of a real-life cybersecurity career path, try an interactive tool called Cyber ​​Seek's Cybersecurity Career Pathway. It is a tool created by Cyber ​​Seek in collaboration with the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE). It tells you what kind of roles the job titles of Entry level, Mid level, and Advanced Jobs perform in the actual field.  

Salary in Cybersecurity

As with other high-demand occupations, cybersecurity professionals can earn significant salaries. In September 2019, this magazine introduced ' The 8 Most Popular IT Security Jobs and Their Remuneration Levels '.

According to the article, the salary of a newbie, an information security analyst, can reach up to $100,000 a year. "For very high positions, you can ask for $400,000 if you have the necessary competencies," said Paul Smith, vice president of business development at PEAK Technical Staffing.

Cybersecurity Certification

However, like other high-tech jobs, the 'details' are constantly changing. Therefore, in order to continue to be successful, you must constantly learn and remain flexible. In this regard, Awake! columnist Roger Grims said, "You have to redefine your skill set every 5 to 10 years." One of the ways (though not the only way) to prove that you are keeping up with industry trends is to obtain a cybersecurity certification. 

Grims lists cybersecurity certifications , detailing who should pursue each. For example, it is recommended that those who want to learn computer security, how hackers hack, and how malicious code is developed should obtain a SANS certificate, and those interested in computer system auditing or computer security management should obtain a certificate from ISACA.